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 What is meant by udhiyah (sacrifice)? Is it obligatory or Sunnah?

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PostSubject: What is meant by udhiyah (sacrifice)? Is it obligatory or Sunnah?   Sun Oct 16, 2011 2:19 am





What is meant by udhiyah (sacrifice)? Is it obligatory or Sunnah?

Praise be to Allaah

The word udhiyah means an animal of the ‘an’aam class (i.e., camel, cow, sheep or goat) that is slaughtered during the days of Eid al-Adha because of the Eid and as an act of worship, intending to draw closer to Allaah thereby.

This is one of the rituals of Islam prescribed in the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and according to the consensus of the Muslims.

In the Qur’aan:

1 – Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only)”

[al-Kawthar 108:2]

2 – Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Say (O Muhammad): Verily, my Salaah (prayer), my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allaah, the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists).

He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims”

[al-An’aam 6:162]

The word nusuk (translated here as sacrifice) means sacrifice; this is the view of Sa’eed ibn Jubayr. And it was said that it means all acts of worship, including sacrifice, which is more comprehensive.

3 – Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And for every nation We have appointed religious ceremonies, that they may mention the Name of Allaah over the beast of cattle that He has given them for food. And your Ilaah (God) is One Ilaah (God Allaah), so you must submit to Him Alone (in Islam). And (O Muhammad) give glad tidings to the Mukhbitoon [those who obey Allaah with humility and are humble from among the true believers of Islamic Monotheism]”

[al-Hajj 22:34]

In the Sunnah:

1 – It was narrated in Saheeh al-Bukhaari (5558) and Saheeh Muslim (1966) that Anas ibn Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sacrificed two white rams speckled with black. He slaughtered them with his own hand, said ‘Allaahu akbar’ and put his foot on their necks.”

2 – It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stayed in Madeenah for ten years, offering sacrifice (every year on Eid).” Narrated by Ahmad, 4935; al-Tirmidhi, 1507; classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Mishkaat al-Masaabeeh, 1475.

3 – It was narrated from ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) shared out sacrificial animals amongst his companions, and ‘Uqbah got a sheep that was six months old. He said, “O Messenger of Allaah, I got a sheep that is six months old.” He said, “Offer it as a sacrifice.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5547.

4 – It was narrated from al-Baraa’ ibn ‘Aazib (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever offers a sacrifice after the prayer has completed his rituals (of Eid) and has followed the way of the Muslims.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5545.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) offered sacrifices, as did his companions (may Allaah be pleased with them). And he said that sacrifice is the way of the Muslims.

Hence the Muslims are unanimously agreed that it is prescribed in Islam, as was narrated by more than one of the scholars.

But they differed as to whether it is Sunnah mu’akkadah (a confirmed Sunnah) or it is obligatory and it is not permissible to omit it.

The majority of scholars are of the view that it is Sunnah mu’akkadah. This is the view of al-Shaafa’i, Maalik and Ahmad according to his most well-known view.

Others were of the view that it is obligatory. This is the view of Abu Haneefah and one of the views narrated from Ahmad. This was also the view favoured by Ibn Taymiyah who said: “This is one of the views narrated in the madhhab of Maalik, or it appears to be the view of Maalik.”

From Risaalat Ahkaam al-Udhiyah wa’l-Dhakaah by Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him).

Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “Udhiyah is Sunnah mu’akkadah for the one who is able to do it, so a person should offer the sacrifice on behalf of himself and the members of his household.”

Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 2/661.


Islam Q&A


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Muslim femail who has been earning since a few years but recently came to know that Qurbani is wajib on her because she is earning. How can she compensiate for all those previous years for which she didnt offer sacrifice.

Praise be to Allaah.

Firstly:

The scholars (may Allah have mercy on him) differed with regard to the ruling on udhiyah: is it obligatory or Sunnah mu’akkadah (a confirmed Sunnah)? The correct view is that it is Sunnah mu’akkadah for the one who can afford it, but there is no sin on the one who does not do it.

For more information, please see the answer to questions number 36432 and 41696.

Secondly:

If a person does not offer udhiyah although he can afford to do so, he is missing out on a lot of reward that results from offering the sacrifice, but he is not sinning, and he does not have to make up what he missed in years past, because udhiyah is Sunnah and the time for it has gone. This is the case if he did not make a vow to offer a sacrifice, in which case it is obligatory for him to fulfil his vow and offer udhiyah.

It says in al-Mawsoo‘ah al-Fiqhiyyah (34/46): If a person does not offer a sacrifice before the time has passed, if it was a voluntary sacrifice he should not offer it; rather he has missed the opportunity to offer a sacrifice this year. But if it was a vow, he has to offer a sacrifice and make up what he was obliged to do. End quote.

Based on that, if she wants to offer udhiyah, then from now onwards she has to prepare ahead of time, so that when the next Eid al-Adha comes, in sha Allah, she will have prepared her sacrifice beforehand, so she will not have missed the time for udhiyah, as happened in the past.

We ask Allah to help us and you to do that which He loves and which pleases Him, and to accept righteous deeds from us and from you.

And Allah knows best.


Islam Q&A


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Is it obligatory to take out a loan in order to buy the udhiyah?

Praise be to Allaah.

In the answer to question no. 36432 we stated that the scholars differed concerning the ruling on udhiyah and whether it is obligatory or mustahabb.

Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

There is nothing in the shar’i evidence to indicate that it is obligatory. The view that it is obligatory is a weak view. End quote.

Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn Baaz, 18/36

Moreover, those who say that it is obligatory state that being rich is a condition of it being obligatory.

See Haashiyat Ibn ‘Aabideen, 9/452.

According to both opinions – the view that it is obligatory and the view that it is mustahabb – there is no need to take out a loan in order to buy the sacrificial animal, because it is not obligatory for one who is not rich, according to scholarly consensus.

Then there remains the question: is it mustahabb to take out a loan or not?

The answer is that it is mustahabb to take out a loan if there is the hope that one can pay it back, such as if a person has a job and takes out a loan until he gets his salary at the end of the month. But if there is no hope of paying it off, then it is better not to take out a loan, because then he is taking on a commitment for something that he is not obliged to do.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked about a person who is not able to offer the udhiyah – should he take out a loan?

He replied:

If he can repay and he takes out a loan so that he can offer a sacrifice, that is good, but he is not obliged to do that. End quote.

Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 26/305.

However, Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) was of the view that it is obligatory.

Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked: Is the sacrifice obligatory for one who cannot afford it? Is it permissible to buy the sacrifice on credit until a person gets his salary?

He replied:

The sacrifice (udhiyah) is Sunnah and is not obligatory… there is no sin on a Muslim taking out a loan to offer the sacrifice if he is able to repay it. End quote.

Fataawa Ibn Baaz, 1/37.


Islam Q&A

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